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The oldest Iranian hand-woven carpet was discovered in 1949 during the second phase of Russian archeological excavations by Rodenko in the Pazyryk region and was called the Pazyryk carpet.
In a book published in Russia on the occasion of these discoveries in 1953, Rodenko wrote a detailed description of the discovered carpet, explicitly stating the work of Iran and the oldest Iranian carpet in the world. He wrote: "Without being able to say with certainty which of the lands of the Medes (ancient Khorasan) or Persia, the date of the carpet and the fabrics discovered in Pazyryk is the fifth or early fourth century BC. It will be recognized. "
Then he adds: "The history of this rug is known from the shape of the horsemen. The way of showing the horses m10.jpg "Pazyryk of various details and how to tie the horses' tails can also be seen in the reliefs of Persepolis."
During the Mongol domination (13th and 14th centuries AD), carpet weaving reached a very high level of beauty and technique. The flourishing of this industry may have coincided with the reign of Ghazan Khan (1305-1295 AD).
But the peak of classical Iranian carpet, which is known as the Renaissance of Iranian carpet, has been recorded during the Safavid sultans (1722-1499 AD), especially during the reign of Shah Tahmasb I (1587-1524 AD) and Shah Abbas Kabir (1629-1587 AD). اند. About 3,000 carpets are remembered from this period, which are kept in the great museums of the world or in private collections.
During this period, carpet weaving workshops were built next to the palaces of kings and various centers that previously existed in Tabriz, Isfahan, Kashan, Mashhad, Kerman, Joshqan, Yazd, Astarabad, Herat and northern states such as Shirvan, Qarabagh and Gilan were further developed and prospered. they got.
At the same time, high-ranking painters and painters incorporated concise designs and a combination of bergamot in the middle of the rug and elastics. That is, the same design that was previously used in the most beautiful way in the fifteenth century on the cover of valuable books.
With the occupation of the country by the Afghans (1722-1721 AD), this industry and art declined.
In the 19th century, Iranian carpets, especially the exquisite carpets of Tabriz, found their way to Europe. Representatives from European countries were sent to all the countries of the Orient and, in a very intense competition, collected all the old carpets and sent them to Constantinople, which was still the most important carpet market in the Orient.
With the depletion of old carpet resources, British (Ziegler 1883) American and German companies set up unlimited workshops in Tabriz, Sultanabad (Arak), Kerman. This trend continued until World War I, when carpet production increased significantly.
A sad and pleasant poem (Persian, translated into English).
The most poisonous angle of shockers ... the deadliest trick of witches
The hottest lust of burning ... the poet slanders Siavash
Everyone who saw you got stuck ... it boiled hard and evaporated
The great pain of my cancer ... The oldest wound of my youth
Listen to my poem with you ... Do not plot, do not talk, listen
They made your poem with the suffocation of blood ... they made you a monster of madness
The root reaches the blood and the blood ... When the fruit becomes the bomb of madness
As soon as you bomb yourself, go further! ... I leave a few steps away!
I was in pain from all my childhood ... I was left a stray child
Now ask me sick ... ask me about the night and the ashes of cigarettes
Burning from the beginning of the night until dawn ... Burning the incident from two or three heads
Your ruined house is in your hands ... the end of every dead end is yours
I shed a drop of blood in my heart ... What did you do to break the poem?
Sometimes you became more anemone than a human being ... you became the cracked soul of Kashan
It was your poem that after the cold season ... no one doubted winter
Earthquakes are Forough's work and that's it? ... Everything they close is a lie and that's it
The blade of Zanjan crawls on you ... the blood of the isolated hearts of your neck
If the poet is the lord of lyric poetry ... his end is Nusrat Rahmani
The Imam is alone ... mixed with blood and thirst
It is an old gamble to make a sonnet ... to lose ten rhymes overnight
My hand is broken, why should I shake my head? ... Show me the ace to believe
No one's hand I landed ... I love this chain man
Shoot my repetitive night ... I am dead of this kind of self-harm
I asked for good and bad ... no one is to blame, I asked for it myself
Hit my glass with your stone ... slander your colorful slander
The thief of my golden nights ... I break, I break, my good
I am waiting for a stormy night ... at the hour of my destruction
I feel sorry for myself ... I am a street pain like you
"With all my chaos ... I'm looking for trouble again"
Who is the man sunk in the mirror? ... I cried until he saw me
What does the sleeping clock pay attention to? ... Gradual death if it is life
"I have no endurance of exhaustion ... I seek immediate destruction."
I, who am not in anyone's place ... I am not the fruit of anyone's tuba
I'm not confused by watching anyone ... I'm not tasting anyone 's lips
"I'm not happy about anyone 's heat ... I've come to burn you"
Tired of the size of the controversy ... of going through the pits
From the night clinging to the forks ... with the passage of the arrow through the wings
"I have come with thirst for years ... until you drink a little love"
Poetry, if I became a monster ... I would be lonely in the end
Sometimes I got more upset than this ... I was driven out of the world
"I came back from the sea ... to catch you and die"
Wow, if my twisting with pain ... hurts until it reaches your arm
Drink my own poison full of sorrow ... Do more, little by little
"Do you know the best accident ... My best field accident?"
Take a bath and do a miracle ... start with me again
Fly out of the window ... make my ear a mystery
"Talk, open my cloud ... it's too late for me to rain."
There is a famine of words and words of years ... break the lock of time for years
I have been full of pain for years ... the capacity of my chest for years
"Talk, talk, talk for years ... I'm thirsty for a long talk"
I mixed day and night ... What did you do to mix poetry?
One step from you all my way ... ask for blood, ready chest; I
They hit your poem hot on Janet ... they stamped betrayal on your mouth
Whoever has a pen is not an artist ... he does not associate the pen with the head
Rumbles hung in the mouth ... they mixed good and bad
You played the rhyme game ... you were the scoundrel of every hand
They kicked you in the corner of this battle ... they hit you with all your might
Have you seen redder than poetry? ... Open your mouth if you have seen
As long as every word is oppressed ... the hand is naturally penned
Sharpen the word in the larynx ... Advertise the trap under the steps
Poetry If the wound of the tongue is sharper ... My city is more than Konya Tabriz
Stay alive my favorite killer ... Do not disappear my most lunar month
You died and it was as if they came to their senses ... Hey! How they touched !
A French military ethics committee has approved the conduct of scientific experiments to increase the capabilities of the armed forces, the American magazine Popular Mechanice reported.
The French military has a program in place to strengthen the physical, perceptual, mental and intelligence capabilities of its military, and seeks to prevent the effects of pain and stress by developing some medical therapies, the magazine wrote in a detailed report. And become tired of the performance of the French army.
The committee also sets out frameworks for the conduct of human experiments, the most important of which are the prohibition of the use of technologies contrary to the fundamental principles of the human condition, and the maintenance of the military's free will to use arbitrary amounts of power.
Earlier, US intelligence officials said the Chinese had begun biological tests to boost the performance of the Chinese military.
Webinar to discuss landscape conservation around Pasargadae
An online seminar will be discussing today the latest developments in the conservation of sceneries encircling the UNESCO-registered Pasargadae in southern Iran.
The event will also review joint projects Iranian archaeologists and their French counterparts have carried out within and around the World Heritage over the past five years, ISNA reported.
Situated about 50 km north of Persepolis, Pasargadae embraces outstanding examples of the first phase of royal Achaemenid art and architecture and exceptional testimonies of Persian civilization.
XCyrus was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire which at its greatest extent stretched from the Balkans to the Indus Valley, spanning 5.5 million square kilometers. The Persian king declared the world’s first charter of human rights, also known as the Cyrus Cylinder.
announcement of cooperation:
Rima Group, with its experienced staff, announces its readiness to provide content creation services as follows: 1- Selling short videos of ten to sixty seconds in all fields 2- Programming 3- Preparing written, audio and video content 3- Poetry writing 4- Fiction writing 4- Translation of texts in English, Persian, Arabic, Istanbul Turkish, Azerbaijani Turkish, German, French, Thai 5- Survey 6- Sending labor from Iran 7- Marketing your products in Iran, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Ukraine 8 - Procurement of Iranian export products by order of the applicant Our WhatsApp message number ： +989149333419 and email [email protected] or [email protected]}
A spokesman for the Ministry of Health announced the latest cases of identification and death caused by Covid 19 in the country in the past 24 hours.
According to ISNA, Dr. Sima Sadat Lari announced: From yesterday to today (December 28, 2014) and based on definitive diagnostic criteria, 14 thousand and 51 new patients with Covid 19 have been identified in the country, of which 2245 were hospitalized.
He said that the total number of Covid 19 patients in the country reached 922,397, adding: "Unfortunately, during the last 24 hours, 406 Covid 19 patients lost their lives and the total number of deaths from this disease reached 47,955."
"Fortunately, 640,065 patients have recovered or been discharged from hospitals so far," Larry said.
Rima Group / News Unit
Assassination of an Iranian nuclear scientist Yesterday (Friday morning), a high-ranking scientist in the field of nuclear and missile was assassinated in the Absard region of Damavand (Tehran province). The assassinated scientist is "Martyr Mohsen Fakhrizadeh"
Mohsen Fakhrizadeh has been one of the most influential and high-ranking scientists in the field of scientific research in the country.
He was the only scientist Netanyahu mentioned in a program, and Israeli media reported that his assassination plot had failed once in years.
Israeli media claimed that the scientist's name had reached Mossad through UN lists./Rima Group - News Unit
Rima Group - News Unit Group - News
Kurdish dance, its types and meanings of movements
History of Kurdish dance in this article, Kurdistan means all the Kurdish regions of Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey and northern Khorasan.
The word "Helpe Raki" comes from the word "Helper" which means movement and shaking, and basically means attacking, which is a symbol of war movements. The religious and social issues of the Aryans and Zoroastrian traditions are completely different from other rhythmic movements of other ethnic groups for entertainment and sexual aspects. In summary, the following points are the same in all Kurdish movements, the meaning of which is stated.
_Handing the first and last person is a sign of equality of all members of the group_Shaking the hand of the group's unity_The existence of women in dance is a sign of brotherhood and sisterhood between all men and women and the social role of women in the group May be
_Clamor and a collective voice to scare the enemy_Sit during the ceremony means to persuade the enemy and the hated group to surrender_Raising the head means to seek help from God. Other small points
The Kurdish dance that is a relic from the distant past and is something beyond ordinary dance. The Kurds in every field have shown that they are worthy guardians of the original and loving traditions of Iran and Iranian culture. Kurdish dances are one of the traditions It is a long-standing and valuable relic of the Aryans. It is still preserved among the Kurds and has even influenced the traditional dances of some neighboring tribes, such as the Assyrians. Undoubtedly, the roots of these movements date back to the second and third millennia BC, but there is no specific date and how it was created. It is Christmas. On this inscription, a picture of Serena and Dahl and people who seem to be performing rhythmic movements is engraved on the stone. This ancient inscription is an important document in the history of these rhythmic movements in Kurdistan. Hakim Omar Khayyam writes in his Nowruz letter "Fereydoun Kurd". The day he captured Zahak and saved Iran from his evil, the people celebrated it. And this is another important reason for the unity of those people and the mass celebration among them. The movements of "Halepe Raki" are performed in four types of religious mystical ceremonies and weddings of mourning and grief. But Kurdish folk dances have There are other types that you will see below
Types of Kurdish folk dances (Halepe Raki) (In general, we divide Kurdish dances into three categories, which include)
1. Joy and praise
3. War and hunting
A: Dances performed in celebrations;
1.Ghe Ryan 11.Three feet 21.Shi house
2. The back of the foot 12. The neck 22. The house
3. هه لگرتن 13.گه ور 23.روینه
4. Straight 14. Two handkerchiefs 24. Three legs
5. فه تاح پاشایی 15. کرمانشانی 25. شلیره
6. Khan and Miri 16. Three bridges 26. Marivani
7. Dagheh Khan and Miri 17. Makr Begi 27. Mahabadi
8. Saqqazi 18. Hariri
9. Saqqez tripod 19. Porridge tripod
10. What P. 20. Blanc
B: Dances that were used and performed in wars and hunting, including;
1. Three times 2. Two times
3. Shalani "Shelan"
5. Resistance 6. Yaran Yaran
7. خر رمان 8. قره پی ره ژن
9. Samuri 10. Awake
11. Barzi Barzi
A: Dances performed at mourning and funeral ceremonies;
1. Folkloric dances - Folk dances, melodies, rustic folk songs have regular and distinctive rhythms, and at the height of the music, the simple people of these areas can dance and dance in any way they can. Observed in different tribal areas of Iran. Local dance, in fact, reflects the attitudes, culture, spirits and lifestyles of the people of each region, and by contemplating these sensational movements, one can realize the values of each ethnic group, and it must be acknowledged that this category has not survived in our country. Researchers and artists should pay attention. Among the types of local dances, we can mention Kurdish, Bakhtiari, Boyer Ahmadi, Azeri, Lori, Baluchi, South Khorasan, North Khorasan or Bojnourd and Qashqai dances. Hürburg divides folk dances into four categories: 1. Original dances that have remained unchanged from the distant past. 2. Local dances that, with minor modifications, are staged and performed on stage by trained dance groups. 3- Dances that are artistic arrangements, local dances, and are performed systematically by dance masters and give an artistic aspect to folk dances. 4- Dances that are based on the composition and composition of local dances, performed with a new technique. Division of Kurdish dances Kurdish folk dances can be divided into two categories: 1- Religious dances 2- Kurdish folk dances (tribal) A. - Religious dances: These dances are the most popular movements in the world. It is performed in this type of dervish dance in the world of unconsciousness, the movements of the head and neck are coordinated with rhythmic music, so-called in ecstasy. B. - Kurdish folk tribal dances: Kurdish folk dances can be considered as one of the most ancient and ancient dances. The Kurdish attack or dance in the past was done solely for the purpose of preparing, strengthening and strengthening the physical, mental and spiritual strength of the people of the Kurdish regions, because the people of these regions in the not-so-distant past have always witnessed tribal wars and perpetuation. He demanded, therefore, that the people of these regions, in the intervals between the wars and on various occasions, hand in hand, draw their military readiness, passion and steadfast solidarity to the face of the enemy. Kurdish dance is considered to be a martial dance that has a special strength and sobriety and is a reminder of the unity of these zealous people in all eras. Today, the collection of these dances is called wooden, which is usually performed in groups. Local dances are inextricably linked to Kurdish music, and nomadic men and women usually hold hands and dance around each other in celebrations away from the vulgarity of the circle. In local terms, this is the case with wheat and barley (ie wheat and barley) in the region. In these dances, a person who knows the dance movements better than others usually assumes the leadership role of the dancers 'group and stands at the beginning of the dancers' line, moving the handkerchief to the right hand, which leads to the dance. And helps them to create the necessary coordination. Called the head of the woodpecker, this person adds to the excitement of the dancers by shaking the handkerchief skillfully and making a sound. At this time, other people, without a handkerchief, are placed in a row next to the head of the gallows in such a way that each one takes the next person with the left hand of the right hand. This condition is called gawani. In Kurdish dance, all dancers look at the group and create a unique harmony by creating a special harmony, unity and integrity. Some Kurdish dances have special melodies and are performed by a group of women and men dancers and some of the dancers. Others perform and perform alone in the middle of the crowd, and in this case, the dancer usually holds two colored handkerchiefs in his hand and plays with them, which is called this type of two-handkerchief dance, and is more common in Kermanshah. Kurdish performances and dances can be divided into the following main parts: 1- Rhinoceros 2- Back of the foot 3- Lahretta 4- Fasha of the pasha5- Lips of the forearm 6- Chest of the foot 7- Zeh of the ring 8- Shah of the side 9- Thirty times - Kurdish house Gahrian Gahrian in Kurdish means to walk and walk and the specific movements of this dance also mean to walk in the mind. The rhyme has two positions, one belonging to the rural areas and the other to the urban areas. This dance starts softly and slowly with a certain tenderness and gradually becomes faster. The melody of this dance continues until the end, with variations in rhythm and oscillations in the performance. In this dance, the effect of sightseeing in the life of the Kurds is demonstrated, and the variety of rhythms in this dance is indicative of the experiences that are achieved in sightseeing, and it can be said that this beautiful dance is a propaganda for looking at this dance in nature. Life is portrayed with its ups and downs and ups and downs, emphasizing the need for vision, experience, and experience to face the turbulent river of life. This dance prepares the dancers for the next more dynamic dance. In almost all Kurdish regions the melody of this dance is played in the same way, in which the first movement begins with the left foot, and the second movement is always replaced by the percussion head, which is usually performed in two baritones. The back of the foot: The back of the foot is a dance that is performed a little faster than the back and is mostly for men in most Kurdish areas. The back of the foot dance, as its name suggests, calls a person to awareness and practice so that he does not fall behind in life. . To lift is to lift something literally. This is a very lively and lively dance, which goes with a lot of enthusiasm and enthusiasm towards the goal. The fast, rhythmic melody of this dance negates any boredom and depression and emphasizes the importance of vitality and purpose in life. Conquest اش Conquest Conquest literally means movement and dance . The melody of this dance is performed uniformly and with a fast rhythm throughout Kurdistan, so this dance is very lively and lively. Most people in Kurdistan welcome this dance. This dance is a symbol of humanity, which, in gratitude, has shown its happiness by achieving success and using the blessings of God. The edge of this dance is performed with a soft and slow rhythm after the conquest of Pasha, and the need for diversity in life can be seen in it. After a lively dance, when the back, the back of the foot, the hips, and the back of the neck are in place as needed, the dancers dance to relax and rejuvenate the dance. After the necessary stage, passion and drunkenness lead to the realm of far-sighted thinking and reflection. In this dance, the participants feel a special calm. طور ...................................... The philosophy of this dance is to strengthen the left side of the body because the left side of the body usually plays a lesser role in daily activities and becomes lazy over time, and for balanced use of physical integrity, the left limbs should always be strengthened. For this reason, in the dance, the left part of the body becomes more active and comes out of depression. In Kermanshah region, most women welcome this dance. In this dance, the dancers take a step forward and then take a step back, and this continues until the end. In this dance, the need for caution, foresight, and analysis of human performance is depicted. In fact, in this deliberate dance, the step is taken and promoted. The cornerstone of this dance, which is performed with the rhythm of a limp, can be considered a broken tragedy. In this dance, steps are limpidly taken so that the fracture is drawn in front of the audience and no one speaks in the drawing of this tragedy. Three-Jar This is a slow, sometimes fast-paced dance that, as its name implies, means three times (three in Kurdish script) in which there are three foot movements and three forward movements, and in a reminiscent way. The sacred number is 3 in Kurdish folklore. Amiri House This dance is also accompanied by a fast rhythm, and in it, the hand is placed from all over and above, making the loop wider and wider, and it is more proportional, between the movement of the hands and feet, this dance is also a show of pride and arrogance. It seems to be reminiscent of the victory and flight of birds. List of sources and references: 1- Eliyadeh- Mircha: 1372 treatise on the history of religions. Translated by Starry Glory. Soroush ش Publishing, Tehran 2- Ustad Junidi , Fereydoun : 1358 Letter of Iranian Culture . Second Office, Neishabour Foundation, Tehran 3- UNESCO: 1995 History of Civilizations of Central Asia . Translated by Sadegh Malek Shahmirzadi. Office of International Studies, 4- Zaka Yahya - 2537 History of Dance in Iran, Art and People, No. 189-1889 June